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Normally, matching modes are specified outside the regular expression. In a programming language, you pass them as a flag to the regex constructor or append them to the regex literal. In an application, you’d toggle the appropriate buttons or checkboxes. You can find the specifics in the tools and languages section of this website.
Sometimes, the tool or language does not provide the ability to specify matching options. The handy String.matches() method in Java does not take a parameter for matching options like Pattern.compile() does. Or, the regex flavor may support matching modes that aren’t exposed as external flags. The regex functions in R have ignore.case as their only option, even though the underlying PCRE library has more matching modes than any other discussed in this tutorial.
In those situation, you can add the following mode modifiers to the start of the regex. To specify multiple modes, simply put them together as in.
Modern regex flavors allow you to apply modifiers to only part of the regular expression. If you insert the modifierin the middle of the regex then the modifier only applies to the part of the regex to the right of the modifier. With these flavors, you can turn off modes by preceding them with a minus sign. All modes after the minus sign will be turned off. E.g. turns on case insensitivity, and turns off both single-line mode and multi-line mode.
If a flavor can’t apply modifiers to only part of the regex then it treats modifiers in the middle of the regex as an error. Python is an exception to this. In Python, putting a modifier in the middle of the regex affects the whole regex. So in Python, caseless and caseless are both case insensitive. In all other flavors, the trailing mode modifier either has no effect or is an error.
You can quickly test how the regex flavor you’re using handles mode modifiers. The regex test should match test and TEst, but not teST or TEST.
Modifier spans are supported by all regex flavors that allow you to use mode modifiers in the middle of the regular expression, and by those flavors only. These include the JGsoft engine, .NET, Java, Perl and PCRE, PHP, Delphi, and R.
| Introduction | Table of Contents | Special Characters | Non-Printable Characters | Regex Engine Internals | Character Classes | Character Class Subtraction | Character Class Intersection | Shorthand Character Classes | Dot | Anchors | Word Boundaries | Alternation | Optional Items | Repetition | Grouping & Capturing | Backreferences | Backreferences, part 2 | Named Groups | Relative Backreferences | Branch Reset Groups | Free-Spacing & Comments | Unicode | Mode Modifiers | Atomic Grouping | Possessive Quantifiers | Lookahead & Lookbehind | Lookaround, part 2 | Keep Text out of The Match | Conditionals | Balancing Groups | Recursion | Subroutines | Infinite Recursion | Recursion & Quantifiers | Recursion & Capturing | Recursion & Backreferences | Recursion & Backtracking | POSIX Bracket Expressions | Zero-Length Matches | Continuing Matches |
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Page last updated: 2 September 2021
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