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Specifying Modes Inside The Regular Expression

Normally, matching modes are specified outside the regular expression. In a programming language, you pass them as a flag to the regex constructor or append them to the regex literal. In an application, you'd toggle the appropriate buttons or checkboxes. You can find the specifics in the tools and languages section of this website.

Sometimes, the tool or language does not provide the ability to specify matching options. The handy String.matches() method in Java does not take a parameter for matching options like Pattern.compile() does. Or, the regex flavor may support matching modes that aren't exposed as external flags. The regex functions in R have ignore.case as their only option, even though the underlying PCRE library has more matching modes than any other discussed in this tutorial.

In those situation, you can add the following mode modifiers to the start of the regex. To specify multiple modes, simply put them together as in (?ismx).

Turning Modes On and Off for Only Part of The Regular Expression

Modern regex flavors allow you to apply modifiers to only part of the regular expression. If you insert the modifier (?ism) in the middle of the regex then the modifier only applies to the part of the regex to the right of the modifier. With these flavors, you can turn off modes by preceding them with a minus sign. All modes after the minus sign will be turned off. E.g. (?i-sm) turns on case insensitivity, and turns off both single-line mode and multi-line mode.

Flavors that can't apply modifiers to only part of the regex treat a modifiers in the middle of the regex as an error. Python is an exception to this. In Python, putting a modifier in the middle of the regex affects the whole regex. So in Python, (?i)caseless and caseless(?i) are both case insensitive. In all other flavors, the trailing mode modifier either has no effect or is an error.

You can quickly test how the regex flavor you're using handles mode modifiers. The regex (?i)te(?-i)st should match test and TEst, but not teST or TEST.

Modifier Spans

Instead of using two modifiers, one to turn an option on, and one to turn it off, you use a modifier span. (?i)caseless(?-i)cased(?i)caseless is equivalent to (?i)caseless(?-i:cased)caseless. This syntax resembles that of the non-capturing group (?:group). You could think of a non-capturing group as a modifier span that does not change any modifiers. But there are flavors, like JavaScript, Python, and Tcl that support non-capturing groups even though they do not support modifier spans. Like a non-capturing group, the modifier span does not create a backreference.

Modifier spans are supported by all regex flavors that allow you to use mode modifiers in the middle of the regular expression, and by those flavors only. These include the JGsoft engine, .NET, Java, Perl and PCRE, PHP, Delphi, and R.

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Regex Tutorial
Introduction
Table of Contents
Special Characters
Non-Printable Characters
Regex Engine Internals
Character Classes
Character Class Subtraction
Character Class Intersection
Shorthand Character Classes
Dot
Anchors
Word Boundaries
Alternation
Optional Items
Repetition
Grouping & Capturing
Backreferences
Backreferences, part 2
Named Groups
Branch Reset Groups
Free-Spacing & Comments
Unicode
Mode Modifiers
Atomic Grouping
Possessive Quantifiers
Lookahead & Lookbehind
Lookaround, part 2
Keep Text out of The Match
Conditionals
Balancing Groups
Recursion
Subroutines
Recursion & Capturing
Recursion & Backreferences
Recursion & Backtracking
POSIX Bracket Expressions
Zero-Length Matches
Continuing Matches
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